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81243:37.013.77 (082) 81.2 43 ISBN 978-966-623-972-6 . . , 2014 ̲ Lysenko V.M. (Kharkiv); Ryabykh M.V.

ANXIETY AND TEMPERAMENT IN SECOND LANGUAGE

ACQUISITION.

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This study looks at such factors as anxiety and temperament, which influence the process of a foreign language acquisition. We have studied the main theories, which explain the influence of anxiety and temperament on foreign language efficiency. The conducted research has shown that general and situational anxiety, temperament, and foreign language efficiency are correlated in the non-foreign language environment.

Key words: general anxiety, learning efficiency, situational anxiety, temperament.

There exist different approaches and theories differentiating and explaining major attitude and aptitude factors that may influence foreign language acquisition and learning process.

There are different studies that have examined at the factors such as anxiety and temperament as separate independent variables that influence foreign language efficiency. However, the focus of our study is on the interdependence between such factors as anxiety and temperament and their influence on foreign language efficiency in the non-foreign language environment.

The relevance of the study lies in the search for sufficient evidence of interdependence between attitudinal factors and foreign language efficiency.

The object of the study covers such factors as anxiety and temperament, which influence foreign language efficiency in the non-foreign language environment of Ukraine.

The subject of the study lies in exploring the interdependence between anxiety and temperament, which determines how anxiety influences foreign language efficiency depending on temperament of a student.

The purpose of the research is to figure out what anxiety levels would create the most favorable conditions for the students of a certain type of temperament in order for them to be able to gain the best progress in foreign language learning.

The theoretical value of the research is to give characteristics of such factors as anxiety and temperament in the non-foreign language environment in this country.




140 .


The practical significance of the research is to determine the further goals and objectives in studying the factors that influence foreign language efficiency in order to improve the existing approaches to foreign language teaching and to create the new ones.

The methods of the research include theoretical analysis, observation, participants questioning, statistics data analysis.

There are numerous studies that examine extraverts and introverts foreign language efficiency. Some scholars argue that extraverts outperform introverts in interpersonal communicative skills therefore do better in speaking classes [3]. Some researchers such as, Chastain and Pritchard discovered the positive relationship between extraversion and foreign language efficiency. However, such scholars as N.

Naiman, M. Frohlich, H. Stern, A. Todesco, R.N. Lalonde and R.C. Gardner have not found any proof to the common hypotheses that extraverts outperform introverts in foreign language learning. At the same time there are those who argue that most language use is dyadic. Due to this fact there are always situations in which extraverts are more comfortable than introverts as for example classroom participation can be stressful for introverts whereas they can proficiently perform in a dyadic interaction [4].

Anxiety belongs to major affective factors that influence foreign language efficiency. Psychologists differentiate anxiety as a personal trait from transient anxiety. According to Spielberger, trait anxiety is considered to be a relatively stable personality characteristic while state anxiety is seen as a response to a particular anxiety-provoking stimulus such as an important test (Spielberger). MacIntyre and Gardner use a term situation specific anxiety referring to situational or transient anxiety [7].

Different studies have been conducted to explain the way anxiety influences the foreign language achievement. Some scholars argue that anxiety correlates negatively with objective tests and course grades. (MacIntyre, Gardner, Smythe, Clement, and Gliksman; Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope). MacIntyre and Gardner assert that anxiety consumes attention and cognitive resources which otherwise could be allocated to performance in a foreign language [5, c. 198]. However, we argue that anxiety can facilitate or debilitate performance in a foreign language depending on student's temperament. This study examines the relationship between anxiety level and temperament. During the study Eysenck personality test was used to determine students' personality types. The levels of trait anxiety were measured using Ryabykh test [1]. The levels of situational anxiety were determined using Spielberger and Hanin test [2].

The study revealed positive correlation between the level of two types of anxiety and performance in foreign language for introverts. The higher the level of anxiety was the better the performance was. The results turned out to be more complicated concerning extraverts. As the study shows, there is a negative correlation between general anxiety levels and performance. The higher the anxiety level is the worse the performance is. However, there is a positive correlation between situational anxiety level and performance to grade 4, after grade 4 the level of anxiety drops whereas performance gets better.

   

Graph. 1. Correlation between anxiety and language efficiency for introverts As the Graph. 1 shows, situational anxiety and general anxiety are correlated as well. The levels of general anxiety tend to be higher (regardless the grade) than the corresponding levels of situational anxiety. It can mean that introverts are generally more anxious than in certain situations.

   

Graph. 2. Correlation between anxiety and language efficiency for extraverts Considering the results presented in Graph. 2 it can be inferred that extraverts with lower general anxiety levels tend to perform better. Those extraverts who have lower general anxiety levels have generally lower situational anxiety levels. It leads to conclusion that there is a correlation between situational anxiety and general anxiety for extraverts as well.

However, due to certain personality traits of extraverts the levels of situational anxiety are not that persistent as by introverts.

When interpreting the results, readers are cautioned to some limitations of this study. The generalizability of the findings is limited by the inclusion of only German major learners.

Notwithstanding these limitations, the findings of this study provide insights into what further research should be done to shed more light on the issue in focus.



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ISSN 0130-9188 ˳ 11 IVAN FEDOROV BOOK CHAMBER OF UKRAINE National Bibliography of Ukraine ˲ THE MAGAZINE ARTICLES CHRONICLE State Bibliographic Index of Ukraine 11 11 2005 June, 2005 (1117912281) (1117912281) 2 ...

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7. Lavrinenko N. P. Social`no-ekonomichne stanovy`shhe ta kul`turno-osvitnya diyal`nist` pravo-slavny`h monasty`riv pivdnya Ky`yivs`koyi yeparhiyi (1793-1917): avtoref. dy`s. na zdobuttya nauk. st. kand. istory`chny`h nauk: specz. 07. 00. 01 istoriya Ukrayiny`. / N. P Lavrinenko. Cherkasy`, 2008. 33 s.8. Lomachy`ns`ka I. M. Pravoslavne chernecztvo v Ukrayini yak suspil`ny`j fenomen: avtoref. dy`s. na zdobuttya nauk. st. kand. fy`losofs`ky`h nauk: specz. 09. 00. 11 religiyeznavstvo. /...




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